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英语语法

2021-06-17 13048 编程艺术家

本人是高三学生,整理了一部分大佬Yjango公开的学习资料,更正了一些拼写错误,也排版了一下。估计知乎上这么长文的英语语法干货很少了吧?

语法

句子是人类语言的核心构造,动词是句子的核心。所以学习英语语法需从句子开始。

学习语法-->分析句子 分析句子-->理清句子成分 分析句子-->理清句子关系

句子成分

  1. 主语:句子所陈述的对象。

  2. 谓语:主语发出的动作。一般是有动作意义的动词。

  3. 宾语:分为动词宾语和介词宾语,属于动作的承受者。

  4. 系动词:表示状态或状态变化的动词,没有实际的动作意义。 如 be动词(am, is, are);感官系动词(look, sound, smell, taste, feel);保持类系动词(keep, stay, remain);状态变化类系动词(become, get, turn, go)等。

  5. 表语:紧跟系动词后面的成分。

  6. 定语:修饰名词或代词的成分。

  7. 状语: 修饰形容词、副词、动词或句子的成分。

  8. 补语:分为宾语补足语和主语补足语。是对宾语和主语的补充说明,与其有主动或被动的逻辑关系。

句型

句子的基本结构:主语部分+谓语部分(名词+动词)

五种句型

关键在于谓语动词,它构成了一个句子的骨架

主语+系动词+主语补足语(表语)

系动词(Linking Verb)

作用:无具体动作,仅起连接作用

后面所接成分:说明主语特点性质特征

种类:be动词(am, is, are)   look, sound, smell, taste, feel, seem, appear, become, turn   表语:名词 or 形容词

主语+谓语(+状语)

不及物动词(Intransitive Verb)vi.   特点:主语自身可以完成,不需要作用对象   习惯:带状语(修饰动作的成分)

主语+谓语+宾语

及物动词(Transitive Verb)vt.   作用:说明主语动作的作用对象   宾语:主语动作承受对象

主语+谓语+间宾+直宾

双宾动词(Dative Verb)  特点:后面成分有(间接宾语[接受者])又有(直接宾语[承受者])

主语+谓语+宾语+宾语补足语

宾补动词(Factitive Verb)

区分双宾语和复合宾语

在间接宾语后加上be动词,若能成句,则是补足语。

动词的分类

实义动词(Notional Verb)

词义:完整  作用:能独立充当谓语  分类:助动词和情态动词以外的动词

助动词(Auxiliary Verb)

词义:不完整  作用:无法独立充当谓语  必须和实义动词连用,构成各种时态、语态、语气、否定、疑问  分类:  Be: am, is, are, was, were, been, being  Do: does, did  Have: has, had, having

Be类

变化形式:am, is, are, was, were, been, being 功能:  1,帮助构成进行时态   I am studying grammar.   He is playing football.  2,帮助构成被动语态   I was cheated.

Do类

变化形式:Does, did 功能:  1,帮助实义动词构成否定   I do not like English.  2,帮助实义动词构成疑问   Do you like English?

Have类

变化形式:Has, had, having 功能:  1,帮助构成完成时态   I have studied English for 3 years.

be, do, have可作实义动词又可作助动词

情态动词(Modal Verb)

词义:有词义,表示说话者对某种行为或状态的看法态度   表示可能、建议、愿望、必要、允许、能力、怀疑  作用:无法独立充当谓语,必须和实义动词一起构成复合谓语  常见: can/could/may/might/must/shall/should/will/would/have to/ought to/used to/need/dare

句子的变化

陈述句否定

谓语动词含有助动词或情态动词

变形:助动词或情态动词后+not  例:He is a teacher. He is not a teacher.   I can swim. I cannot swim.   He will come to the party. he will not come to the party

谓语动词是实义动词

变形:借助助动词do not来构成,第三人称用does+not+动词原形,过去式did+not  例:I like English. I do not like English.   He likes English. He does not like English.   There are some dogs. There aren't any dogs.

助动词否定的缩写

情态动词否定的缩写

其他词变化:and->or;already->yet;both->either;some->any

祈使句:祈使句前+don't 例:Don't open the door.

不定式:不定式前+not 例:She asks the boy not to play in the street.

一般疑问句

谓语动词含有助动词或情态动词

变形:助动词 or 情态动词移至句首  例:He is a teacher. Is he a teacher? Yes, he is./No, he isn't.

谓语动词是实义动词

变形:加do does did于句首,实义动词变原形  例:He likes English. Does he like English? Yes, he does/No, he doesn't.  I like English. Do you like English? Yes, I do/No, I don't.

特殊疑问句

不接名词连用的疑问句

对人提问:who  He can sing in English. Who can sing in English.  I saw him at the party last night. Who did you see at the party last night?

对事或物:what  I like English. What do you like?  I am studying English grammar. What are you doing?  I am studying English grammar. What are you studying?  I'd like to go swimming tomorrow. What would you like to do tomorrow?

对时间提问:when  I was born in 1980. When were you born?

对地点提问:where  He lives in Beijing. Where does he live?

对方式提问:how  He goes to school by bus. How does he go to school?

对原因提问:why  I often study at the library because it's quiet. Why do you often study at the library?

接名词连用的疑问词

Which:  Could you lend me your pen?  Sure. I have two pens. This pen has black ink. That pen has red ink.  Which pen/Which one/Which do you want?  That red one. Thanks.  Which也可不接名词,这时which用作代词。

Whose:  必须接名词  This is his book. Whose book is this?  I borrowed Jack's car last night. Whose car did you borrow last night?

How用法详解

单独使用:对动作方式的提问  How do you go to work?  I drive/By car/I take a taxi/I take a bus/By bus.  How did he break his leg?  He fell off the ladder.

和形容词 or 副词连用  How old are you?  How tall is he?  How big is your new house?  How far is it from your home to school?  How well does he speak English?  How quickly can you get here?

对频率提问:how often/how many times?  I write to my parents once a month. How often do you write to your parents?  I go shopping twice a week. How often do you go shopping?/How many times a week  do you go shopping?

其他频率短语  (Every/Once a/Twice a/Three times a)(day/week/month/year)

时态

一般时态和现在时态

一般现在时

The present simple tense is used to express a general truth or fact, or an action that occurs regularly or habitually. Generally, the present simple tense verb conveys a sense of permanence. Truth or fact  The sun rises in the east and sets in the west.  The earth moves around the sun. An action that occurs regularly or habitually  I often spend two hours reading English in the morning.  Classes begin at nine in the morning

  1. 事实  The world is round.

  2. 经常性,习惯性动作或状态  He doesn't work hard.  常连用频率副词(助动词后,实义动词前)  always frequently usually sometimes generally occasionally often  never seldom rarely

  3. 以there或here开头句子中,表正在发生的短暂动作  Here comes your wife=your wife is coming.  There goes our bus; we'll have to wait for the next one.

  4. 条件状语(if unless),时间状语(when as soon as before after )从句中,表示将来动作  Please let me know when he comes back.  What are you going to do when you leave school?  I'll be glad if she comes over to visit me.

一般过去时

The past simple tense is used to express a completed action which took place eat a specified time in the past.  The specified time is either stated or implied. A completed action  I saw him in the library yesterday morning.  I began to learn English ten years ago. A past action that occurred regularly or habitually  I slept for eight hours last night.  She lived in our town for three years, but now she is living in Beijing.

  1. 过去动作或状态  He was late for school this morning.  I bought this computer three years ago.

  2. 过去一段时间一直持续或反复发生的动作  I lived in the country for ten years.  He used to do morning exercises.  He took a walk after supper when he was alive.

一般将来时

The future simple tense is used to express an action that will occur at some time in the future. Will or Be Going To can be used to express sort of certainty.  According to the weather report, it will be windy tomorrow. 说话人认为将要发生  According to the weather report, it is going to be windy tomorrow. 根据明显迹象判断 Be Going To is used to express a definite plan.  I have bought a computer and I'm going to learn the computer science. Will is used to express a willingness.  The telephone is ringing; I will answer it.

will(说话时做出的决定) be going to(对话前做出的决定)

进行时态

时态构成  助动词+进行分词 be+doing 意义  该时刻(具体时间,另一个具体活动背景下),活动正在进行

现在进行时

  1. 说话此刻正在进行  What program are you watching?  He is not available now. He is talking on another phone.

  2. 现阶段正在持续的动作  what are you doing these days?  I am learning the usage of verb tenses.

  3. 最近的将来已定的安排(计划 安排做)  What are you doing on Saturday night?  I'm doing some shopping with Jane. I am taking a makeup test tomorrow.

  4. 与always forever continually constantly等连用,表示抱怨,厌烦  Jack is always borrowing money and forgetting to pay you back.  He's continually asking me for money.

过去进行时

  1. 过去特定时刻发生的事情  I was discussing my thesis with my director at this time last night.  What were you doing at 10 o'clock last night? I was having dinner with my friends.

  2. 过去进行时(背景)+一般过去时(背景下发生的短暂动作或状态)  The phone rang while I was having my bath, as usual.  I was watching TV when the phone rang.

将来进行时(will be doing)

  1. 将来某特定时刻活动正在进行 I'll be lying on a beach in Santa this time tomorrow. Don't telephone after eight tomorrow. I'll be having a meeting.

名词

名词短语(名词与它前面的修饰语)  These red roses are for you.  I have three close friends.  I really need a new computer.

  1. 功能  主语 宾语(介词不能单独使用,后面所接宾语) 表语

  2. 修饰语  限定词: 泛指,特指,定量,不定量(these/three/a/the/my/that),冠词(a/an/the)  形容词: red close new best small

  3. 位置  限定词在形容词前: 限定词+形容词+名词: three red roses.

名词可数与不可数

名词分类

专有名词 Paris, the United States, Bill Gates  普通名词   可数名词    个体名词 student tree hospital house piano    集体名词 team committee police group family   不可数名词    物质名词 paper water cotton air    抽象名词 birth happiness evolution technology hope  简单名词 story student teacher  复合名词 girlfriend roommate mother-in-law

是否可数的相对性

例如 paper  I need some paper to write a letter(纸 不可数)  I have a term paper to write on weekends(论文 可数)  I bought a paper(报纸 可数)  room(空间 不可数;房间 可数)

可数名词与不可数名词比较

可数名词: 前面可以+a or an or 数词(two)  不可数名词: 不可+a or an or 数词(two)

不可数名词

  1. 物质名词不可数  beer blood coffee cream gasoline honey juice milk oil tea water wine  bread butter cheese ice ice-cream meat beef chicken fish chalk copper cotton glass gold iron  air fog oxygen smoke

  2. 抽象名词  advice anger beauty confidence fun happiness health honesty information love lunch peace

  3. 总称名词不可数  furniture fruit jewelry luggage equipment poetry machinery

不可数名词的度量

  1. piece  advice bread baggage chalk equipment furniture information jewelry luggage music news

  2. bottle/cup/drop/glass  beer blood coffee milk tea water wine

  3. otherwise  a loaf of bread/a tube of toothpaste/a pack of cigarette/a slice of meat

名词所有格

  1. 单数名词后+'s

  2. 复数名词后+s' or 复数型名词后+'s  her friends' money  the children's Day

  3. 复合名词后+'s  my father-in-law's company  everyone else's viewpoints  Henry the Eighth's wives  the President of America's secretary

  4. and连接的并列名词: 共有情况: 最后+'s ; 各自所有情况: 每个名词后+'s

  5. 重量 度量 价值  two pounds' weight/a ton's weight/a ton's steel/two dollars' worth of sugar

  6. 省略  1)前文以出现,避免重复  This bike is mine, not Michael's  2)表示店铺或教堂(要加the)  at the baker's/at the butcher's/at the chemist's/at the doctor's  3)人名后的所有格省去名词表示住宅  go to my sister's/I called at my uncle's yesterday.

  7. of所有格的其他关系  1)主谓关系  the visitor's departure/the teacher's request/the growth of agriculture  2)动宾关系  the children's education/the boy's punishment/the discussion of the plan

人称代词

主格人称代词

作用:主句或从句中做主语  She is my daughter.  It was he who helped me when I was in trouble.  顺序: you, he, I;we, you, they(I总是放在最后)

表示泛指的主格代词

one:任何人,包括说话人  One is knocking at the door.(错误,说话人不算,所以不能用one)  Somebody is knocking at the door.  One后面使用的代词,美国一般用he,him,himself,his.  We/You/They 可以表示泛指:人们  They say=People say or It is said  They say it is going to be a cold winter.

she(her)的拟人化

表示country, motherland, moon, earth, ship  The ship lost most of her rigging in the storm

宾格人称代词

作用:做宾语(也可做表语)  I like her.  Who is it? It's me.  注意:做表语时,后面跟定语从句时,需要用主格人称代词。  It was he in whom we had the greatest faith(he在从句中做介词宾语)  主格和宾格人称代词可以做同位语:  We teachersshould be patient with students.  Our teachers are all nice to us students.

做宾语时的位置

直接宾语前: He bought me a pen as birthday gift.  直接宾语后:He bought a pen for me as a birthday gift;I've lent much monery to him.  若直接宾语是人称代词,只能置后,但是不适用于不定代词:  I will give it to you.  I'll show you something;I didn't give Rex any.  在短语动词中间:Hand them in;throw it away;pick it up.  若是名词,则中间和后边都可:hand your papers in=hand in your papers.

物主代词(名词性&形容词性)

作用:人称代词的所有格形式,表所有关系。 形容词性:不能单独使用: Your book is over there;His sister is lovely.  表强调时后+own:I wish I had my own house. 名词性:单独使用;避免重复:This is not my book. Mine(=my book) is in my bag.  of+名词性物主代词: a friend of mine;a teacher of hers=a teacher of her own.

反身代词

必须主语宾语为同一人时,做宾语:God helps those who help themselves.  强调主语:   He himself went to visit the old lady(他亲自去看望那个老太太的)    不产生歧义下可置后:     He went to visit the old lady himself.     He spoke to the boss himself.(有歧义)  强调宾语:反身代词在宾语后   He saw Tom himself(他看到Tom本人了)   I will send this gift to John himself(给john本人,不是通过转交)  介词+反身动词   by oneself:独自一人地    I went there by myself(我自己一个人去了那里)    I went there myself(我亲自去了那)   of oneself:自动地    The door opened ofitself(门自动地开了)

介词

特点:不能单独使用,后面需带宾语(名词,代词,数词,动名词,动名词短语,名词从句) 搭配:在介词前的词:动词(depend on)名词(pay attention to)形容词(be kind to) 充当:与其宾语构成介词短语后可充当主语,补足语 ,定语,状语

作用:词与词之间的表示关系

种类:  简单介词(at, by, for, from, in, near, of, off, on)  复合介词  简单链接:inside, into, onto, out of, outside, throughout, upon, within, without  搭配连用:as to, from above, from behind, from beneath, from under, until after

介词短语

at the cost of, at the mercy of, at odds with, by means of, by reason of, by virtue of,  by way of, in place of, in favor of, in spite of, with an eye to.  关于:in/with reference to, in/with respect to, in/with regard to

时间介词

at, in, on

1)at(时间点)  a.特定时刻:at nine after ten  b.不确定时刻:at night, at dawn, at midnight, at that time, at the moment, at Christmas  c.年龄段:  at the age of eight/at eight  He got married at twenty

2)in(时间段)  a.长时间段  in the morning/afternoon/evening  in spring/summer/autumn/winter  in the past, in the past ten years  in the twenty-first century  a man in his thirties  b.在时间之内/后,表将来时  He said he would come back in a month  The train is leaving in a minute  c.in+动名词:在做...过程中  In crossing the river, we caught some fish.  In working, we can learn a lot.  d.几月:in October

3)on(表示具体日期)  a.具体日期和星期  On Monday On my birthday  b.特定某天上午、下午等  On the night of December 31, 1999  On the eve of Christmas/New Year  On a hot midnight in July  c.在第几天  On his first day to school.  On the tenth day I was in Beijing.  d.on+动名词 or 名词=as soon as:一...就...  On hearing the bad news, she burst into tears.  On arriving, I came directly to visit you.  The first thing I did on arrival of Beijing was visit him.

from 和to或till/until连用 Most people work from nine to five.

since  和时间点连用,从那一时刻起。现在完成时,过去完成时连用  He has been here since last Sunday  I haven't seen him since two years ago  I haven't seen him for two years  It's two years since I last saw him

for  和时间段连用,表示动作延续到说话的那一刻。现在完成时,过去完成时连用  I have lived here for a year  I have lived here since this time last year

by  a.no later than:不迟于某个时间,到了某个时间  by the end of next year  b.by引导时间状语常与将来完成时 or 过去完成时连用  By the end of next year I'll have learned 2000 words  By the end of last year I had learned 2000 words

时间介词短语

at the beginning of 在..的开头 at the beginning of a book there is often a table of contents. at the beginning of the concert. at the beginning of January.

in the beginning:at first=in the early stages In the beginning, I wrote to my family regularly. later I just gave up

at the end of  But at the end of this process, unfortunately, the students are none the wiser.  At the end of a book there may be an index  At the end of the concert  At the end of January

in the end:eventually=at last:最终....  Jim couldn't decide where to go for his holidays. He didn't go anywhere in the end.

有last/next/this/every不再加介词  I'll see your next Friday.

during for  during在...期间内,强调这时间内发生了什么 for表示延续时间的长短  I had lived in the countryside for 8 years before I moved to Beijing.  I studied in this university for 4 years. During that time most of my time was spent in learning English.  My father was in hospital for six weeks during the summer.

during接表示一段时间的名词:stay, visit, travel  During my visit to China  During the travel to the south  During the Middle ages

for+时间段  for six years for two months for ever for two hours

方位介词

at, in

at(小地方)   at home, at the office, at school, at the bridge, at the crossroads, at the bus-stop   at the doctor, at the hairdresser

in(表示大地方)   in a country, in a town, in a village, in the street, in the forest, in a field, in a desert

其他情况(固定搭配)   in a line/in a row/in a queue   in a photo/in a picture   in a mirror   in the sky/in the world   in a book/in a newspaper/in a magazine/in a letter   in the front/back row(at the front/back)   in the front/back of the car   at the front/back of the building/cinema/classroom

谈论建筑

at表示事情发生场合   I met him at the cinema last night.  in表示建筑物本身   I enjoyed the film but it was very cold in the cinema  in强调在建筑里,at包括建筑物周围及里面   at the restaurant(可以是餐馆内,也可以是在餐馆附近的某个地方)   in the restaurant(在餐馆里)   at the cinema(在电影院,不一定在里面)   in the cinema(在里面)   There were a lot of people in the shop, It was very crowed   Go along this road, then turn left at the shop

on, over, above

on表示两者接触   Put away the books on the desk   The dictionary on the table is not mine   There is some water in the bottle   There is a label on the bottle   There is somebody at the door. Shall I go and see who it is?   There is a notice on the door. It says “Do not disturb”

on的其他情况   on the left/on the right   on the first/second floor   on a map   on the page/on page seven(at the top/bottom of the page)   on the menu   on the list   on a farm   on the way to school   on the corner of street, in the corner of the room

over不仅接触,还有覆盖的含义   Spread the cloth over the table   Mon put a rug over me when I was asleep

over还可以表示正上方   There is a bridge over the river   There is a lamp over the desk

above仅表示上下位关系,不接触,也不是正上方   The sun rose above the horizon   There is a bridge above the river   He is over me(He is my immediate superior)   He is above me

below, under, beneath

under在下方,可接触,可不接触   I put the money under the mattess(床垫)   The dog is groveling under the table

below表示两个表面之间间隔距离   They live below us

beneath可以替换under,但是偏向抽象含义   He would think it beneath him to tell a lie   She married beneath her

手段介词

by

表示行为方式

send something by post  do something by hand  pay by check/by credit card(pay in cash)  某事发生:by mistake/by accident/by chance(on purpose)

表示交通工具

by car, by train, by plane/air, by boat/sea/ship, by bus  by bicycle/bike, by metro/subway/underground(on foot)  by car(in a car, in my car, in the car)  I don't mind going by car but I don't want to go in your car

car, taxi前用介词in   They didn't come in their car. They came in a taxi.

自行车和公共交通设施前用on   on the train/by train, on his bicycle/by bicycle

表示通过 某种手段达到预期效果(与with区别)   We succeeded by cooperating with them   Our mission is to help our clients achieve their business goals by providing a service   for the timely delivery of qualified staff to support their operational needs.

with

表示用具体的工具做某事  I killed a fly with a fly-flap(苍蝇拍)  We can see with our eyes and write with our hands

in

表示以某种方式做某事  Write in pencil/in ink  Express this in your own words  Speak in a low voice  Pay in installments(分期付款)

through

与by相近,through一般多根名词连用, by多跟动名词连用  they talked to each other through an interpreter.

动名词

做主语

直接句首做主语:谓语动词用单数

a. Seeing is believing.  b. Reading is like permitting a man to talk a long time, and refusing you the right to answer.  c. Having a successful marriage takes effort and patience, and communication is the key.

It is no good doing sth句型

it形式主语,真正主语是doing sth  no可以替换为:any/some good, any/some/no use, a waste of time.  a. Is it any good trying to explain?  c. It's not much use my buying salmon if you don't like fish.  d. it's simply a waste of time and money seeing that movie.

there be句型

1) there is no point (in) doing something 做某事没有意义  a. there is no point in my going out to date someone, I might really like if I met him a the time, but who, right now, has no chance of being anything to me but a transitional man  2) there is no use/good (in) doing something  a. there is no use your arguing with him  b. there is no use your complaining to me about this.  3) there is no doing something=it's impossible to do something=we can't do something.  a. there is no gainsaying/denying the fact that...毋庸置疑  b. there is no telling what will happen tomorrow.  c. there's no knowing the future=it's impossible to know the future, or we can't know it.

做宾语

一些动词后只能用动名词做宾语

appreciate, avoid, consider, delay, dislike, enjoy, escape, feel like, finish, can't help, involve,  overlook, permit, postpone, practice, risk, can't stand, suggest, tolerate, understand.  a. I will overlook your being so rude to my sister this time but don't let it happen again.  b. Many of the things we do involve taking some risk in order to achieve a satisfactory result  c. Being a bad-tempered man, he would not tolerate having this lectures interrupted.

接动名词和不定式有区别的动词

很多动词接动名词和不定式均可,但是意思有很大差别。

demand, deserve, need, require, want

动名词:主动形式表示被动  不定式:必须用被动形式  a. The garden needs watering/to be watered. 不说 The garden needs being watered.  b. Your hair needs cutting/to be cut.

remember, forget, stop, go on, regret

动名词:表示发生于这些动词之前的事  不定式:表示发生在这些动词之后的事

remember

remember doing sth: remember/recall something that happened in the past.  记得已做过某事  a. I still remember being taken to Beijing for the first time.  b. I don't remember/recall locking my suitcase  =as far as I know, my suitcase should be open  remember to do sth: remember to perform a responsibility, duty or task.  记得需要履行的职责 or 任务。  a. Remember to go to the post office, won't you?  b. Remember to do some shopping after work.  c. Clint always remembers to turn off the lights when he leaves the room.

forget

forget doing sth: forget something that happened in the past.  忘记了已做过的某事  I forgot locking the door. So when I came back, I found the door locked.  as far as I know, the door should be open.  forget to do sth: forget to perform a responsibility, duty or task.  忘记要做的事  As well as getting on everybody's nerves, he's got a habit of borrowing money and forgetting to pay it back.

stop

stop doing: 停下经常做的或手头正在做的事情  I really must stop smoking.  stop to do: 停下来去做某事  stop to have a rest.

go on

go on doing sth: 继续做一直在做的事情。  a. The teacher went on explaining the text.  b. Peter went on sleeping despite the noise.  go on to do sth: 改做另一件事  a. He welcomed the new students and then went on to explain the college regulations.  b. Finishing the new words, the teacher went on to attack the text.

regret

regret doing sth: regret something that happened in the past.  对已发生的事情感到遗憾  a. I don't regret telling her what I thought, even if it upset her.  b. I regret letting slip that opportunity.  c. I regret lending him so much money. He never paid me back.  d. Now he regrets not having gone to university.

regret to do something: regret to say, to tell someone, or to inform someone of some bad news 遗憾的告诉或通知某人某个坏消息。  a. We regret to inform you that we are unable to offer you employment.  b. I regret to tell you that you failed the test.  c. We regret to inform you that the flight has been canceled.

动名词的其他结构

have difficulty (in) doing sth  trouble  problem  (a lot of fun)  (lots of) pleasure  a hard time  a good time  a difficult time

注意: take the trouble to do sth, trouble to do sth, have (no) time to do sth.  a. I worked sos late in the office last night that I hardly had time to catch the last bus.  b. I have a hard time getting used to living in a big place.

can't help doing, can't resist doing, can't keep from doing, can't hold back from doing  can't keep back from doing  注意: can't help but do, can't but do, can't choose but do, etc.  No one can help liking Tom;he is such a cute boy.

be worth doing值得做;主动形式表示被动  be worthy of being done 或 be worthy to be done.  a. The book is worth reading.  b. The book is worthy of being read.  c. The book is worthy to be read.

动名词的复合结构

物主代词(his, my, your等)所有格名词(Mary's Tom's)与动名词连用,即构成动名词的符合结构。用来引出动名词的逻辑主语,以区别于句子主语。  Clint insisted on reading the letter. (Clint看了信)  Clint insisted on my reading the letter. (我不得不看信)  Would you mind telling us the whole story? (你告诉)  Would you mind Tom's telling us the whole story?=Would you mind if Tom tells us the story  He disliked working late  He disliked my working late  I object to making private calls on this phone  I object to his making private calls on this phone.

用法

做主语或宾语  a. Tom's coming home at last was a great consolation (做主语)  b. Do you mind my making a suggestion? (做及物动词宾语)  c. Our discussion of earthquakes would be incomplete if we didn't raise the possibility of their being caused by external forces.

物主代词(his)可以改为宾格代词(him) or 所有格名词(Tom's)改成普通格名词(Tom)  a. It's no use Tom arguing with his boss.  b. Do you mind me making a suggestion?  c. I am annoyed about John forgetting to pay.

应用原则:  1) 若动名词复合结构在句中做主语,最好用所有格形式  a. Tom's refusing to accept the invitation upset me.  b. His refusing to accept the invitation upset me.  c. It was a great consolation his coming home at last.  2)动名词复合结构在句中做宾语时候,用普通格或所有格均可  a. Do you mind me making a suggestion?  b. I am annoyed about John forgetting to pay.

动词不定式

做主语

It+to do sth句型

1. It+to do sth句型;it做形式主语  a. It is easier to spend money than to make money.  b. It takes time to study English well.  形式主语it不能用this或that替换  This is impossible for people to stare directly at the sun.应用it

2. 不定式置于句首做主语,谓语动词要用单数。  a. To err is human;to forgive, divine  b. To solve this problem takes a genius like Einstein.  c. To love for the sake of being loved is human, but to love for the sake of loving is angelic.  d. To send a letter is a good way to go somewhere without moving anything but your heart.

做宾语

动词+ to do

1. 直接跟在一个及物动词后面做宾语  特点一:句子的主语和不定式的逻辑主语是一致的,动作都是由主语发出。  特点二:这时句子谓语动词多是描写态度;不定式动作则说明行为。  a. I hope to see you again.  b. This company refused to cooperate with us.  c. He promised not to tell anyone about it.

接不定式做宾语的动词有  agree, appear, beg, begin, dare, decide, expect, fail, forget, happen, hate, hesitate  hope, intend, like, love, manage, mean, prefer, prepare, pretend, promise, propose  refuse, regret, remember, seem, start, swear, try, want, wish

2. 连接词引导宾语从句的简略形式:动词+连接代词or连接副词or连词whether+to do  a. I wonder who to invite. (= who I should invite)  b. Show us what to do. (= what we must do)  c. I don't know whether to answer his letter. (= whether I should answer)  类似动词还有:ask, consider, decide, discover, explain, forget, find out, guess, imagine, know, learn, observe, remember, see, tell, teach, think, understand, wonder

做宾语补足语

动词+ sb to do sth

1. 通常结构:动词+sb to do sth  a. They don't allow people to smoke in the theater.  b. The chairman declared the meeting to be over.  c. Allow me to drink to your success.  d. Allow me to propose a toast to our friendship.  f. My mother wishes me to return to China.

常用动词:advise, allow, ask, beg, cause, encourage, expect, forbid, force, get, help, like, order, permit, persuade, remind, teach, tell, want, warn, wish(hope不可)

2. 在let, make, have, see, hear, feel, watch, notice, listen to等动词后面,不定式做宾语补足语  to要省略,改为被动语态,则必须带to(详见“不带to的不定式”)

做定语

名词+ to do sth

1. 动宾关系  被修饰名词在逻辑上做不定式的宾语  a. She has four children to take care of.  b. I had no place to live in.  c. You just regard me as a thing, an object to look at, to use, to touch, but not to listen to or to take seriously.  d. I gave the kid a comic to read.  e. He needs a place to live in.  f. I have no partner to speak English with.  g. I need a pen to write with.  h. I need a piece of paper to write on.

** 注意:**  1. 不定式一般不用被动形式  2. 不定式动词后面不能再加宾语  a. I gave the kid a comic to read it. *  b. I need something to eat it. *  3. 不定式动词后介词不省略  a. I have no partner to speak English. *  b. I need a pen to write. *

4. 被only, last, next, 序数词, 最高级修饰的名词通常用不定式做定语  a. I don't think he is the best man to do the job.  b. The next train to arrive is from New York.  c. Clint was the second person to fall into this trap.  d. Clint was the only person to survive the air crash.

做独立成分

修饰整个句子: to begin with, to tell the truth, to make a long story short, so to speak, to be brief/exact/frank/honest, to say nothing of(姑且不所说), to say the least(至少可以这么说)  a. To begin with, on behalf of (代表)all of your American guests, I wish to thank you for the incomparable hospitality.  b. I have a point there, to say the least.  c. To make a long story short, he is in hospital now.

做状语

目的在状语 or 结果状语

做目的状语

a. Hating people is like burning down your own house to get rid of a rat.  b. To avoid criticism, do nothing, say nothing, be nothing.  c. To acquire knowledge, one must study;but to acquire wisdom, one must observe.  d. We had better start early to catch the train.  e. I went to the post office to mail a letter.

可以用in order to do或so as to do强调目的状语  a. We had better start early so as to catch the train.  b. I went to the post office in order to mail a letter.  c. I quote others in order to better express my own self.  d. The teacher raised her voice in order for us to hear more clearly.  注意:so as to不放在句首;to do和in order to do可以放句首。

做结果状语

  1. 直接做结果状语  a. He lived to be a hundred years.  b. What have I done to offend you?  c. He lived to see second world war.(= he lived until he saw world war II)

  2. never to do表结果  a. John left his hometown ten years ago, never to return.  b. We parted never to see each other.

  3. only to do引出意想不到或不愉快的结果  a. We hurried to the railway station, only to find the train had just left.  b. All too often, women complain that they're educated as equals, only to go out into the workforce to be treated as inferiors.  c. He worked very hard, only to find he had not finished half of the job.

  4. enough to  a. He is not old enough to go to school.  b. The teacher speaks loudly enough to make himself heard clearly.

  5. too...to结构:太...而不能  a. The box is too heavy for me to even move.  b. The tea is too hot to drink.

形容词后的不定式

  1. 句子主语不定式可以构成逻辑上的主谓关系  这类形容词通常表示性格特征行为表现  brave, careful, careless, clever, considerate, cruel, foolish, generous, kind, modest, nice  polite, rude, selfish, silly, stupid, thoughtful.  a. He was surprised to learn how much he had spent.  b. The boy was careless to break the window.

  2. 句子主语不定式构成逻辑上的动宾关系  a. She is interesting to listen to=It is interesting to listen to her.  b. Relativity theory isn't easy to understand=it isn't easy to understand relativity theory.  c. She is very nice to talk to=It is very nice to talk to her.  d. Mary is easy to get on with=It is easy to get on with Mary.  e. English is difficult to speak.  f. Football is very interesting to watch.  g. Barbara is interesting to listen to because she reads a lot.  在动宾关系的情况需要注意:  1)不定式动词不用被动式(最容易出错)  a. English is difficult to be spoken.*  b. Football is interesting to be watched.*  2)不定式后不加宾语  a. Football is very interesting to watch it.*  b. She is nice to talk to her.*  3)不定式动词所带介词不能省略  a. She is interesting to listen.*  b. She is easy to get on.*

  • It's impossible for fish to live without water.

  • it's necessary for students to do more exercise in learning English.

  • The boy was made to sing the song once again.

  • He couldn't help bursting into tears after he heard the news.

  • She could not but admit that they were justified in this

  • They forbade him to go to the park

  • The first explorer to reach California by land was Strong Smith, a trapper who crossed the southwestern deserts of the United States in 1826

  • He was the first to arrive and the last to leave

  • The teachers don't know what it takes to start and run a school.

不带to的不定式

动词的复合宾语中to省去

1. 感觉动词:see, hear, watch, notice, feel, observe  2. 使役动词:let, make, have  a. The teacher has us write a composition every week.  b. I saw a man enter the shop.  但为被动结构时,后面需要+to  a. A man was seen to enter the shop.

一些短语中to省略

had better, would rather, would sooner, would just a soon, might(just) as well, cannot but  cannot choose but, cannot help but  a. I cannot but admire his courage.  b. We might as well put up here for tonight.  c. I couldn't help but fall in love with you.

do nothing/anything/everything but do省略

a. I have nothing to do but wait.  b. I have no choice but to wait(but前没有do,则不定式+to)  c. He needs nothing but to succeed.  d. He will do anything but give in  在解释do的精确含义的名词从句和定语从句做主语的句子中,be动词后直接+do  e. All that I could do then was wait.  f. What I could do then was wait.  g. All you do now is complete this form.  h. No mountains too high for you to climb. All you have to do is have some climbing faith.  No rivers too wide for you to make it across. All you have to do is believe it when you pray.

被动语态

构成:be +过去分词

不同时态的被动语态be变化 is, is being, has been, was, was being, had been, will be, will have been.

不用by情况

  1. 实施者明显  a. The rubbish hasn't been collected.  b. Your hand will be X-rayed.  c. The streets are swept every day.

  2. 实施者未知或没必要提及  a. The President has been murdered.  b. My car has been moved.  c. Rice is grown in many countries.  d. The library was built in 1890.

  3. 泛指人们  acknowledge, assume, believe, claim, consider, estimate, feel, find, know, presume, report, say, think.  People believe him to be honest. He is believed to be honest.

  4. 主句主语是one, you, they 通常用被动语态  One/You see this kind of advertisement everywhere.  This kind of advertisement is seen everywhere.  They are building a new public library in our town.  A new public library is being built in our town.

  5. 避免改换主语(可以接by短语)  When he arrived home, a detective arrested him.  When he arrived home, he was arrested.

不及物动词没有被动语态

He came here last night.  He looks fine.

双宾语可以有两种被动语态(人做主语更常见)

Someone gave me a gift. I was given a gift.  Someone gave a gift to me. A gift was given to me.

静态被动语态

Clint broke the window last night  The window was broken last night  Now the window is broken.

常见interested, excited, satisfied, married, disappointed, scared, frightened, worried, lost  a. I am interested in grammar.  b. I am satisfied with Clint's grammar course.  c. She is married to her teacher.  d. The table is made of wood.  e. Are you scared of snake?

get与被动语态(get与过去分词连用)

可以构成被动语态

a. My watch got broken while I was playing with the children.  b. He got caught by the police because he exceeded the speed limit.

可以接静态的被动形式,表示主语的状态

a. I stopped working because I got tired.  b. I got worried because he was two hours late.  c. She is getting dressed to the party and has trouble deciding what clothes to wear.

have/get sth done

have sth done或者get sth done

  1. 安排别人把事情做好(主要用法)  a. Are you going to repair the car yourself?  b. No, I'm going to have it repaired.  c. I want to have/get my items repaired. (My items need repairing.)  d. I must get my hair cut=I want someone to cut my hair.  e. You should get/have your bike repaired.  g. If you don't get our of my house, I'll have you arrested.

  2. 意外或不行的事情  a. I got my car stolen last year.  b. Have you ever had your passport stolen?  c. Joe had his leg broken in a fight.  d. It took me two hours to get the washing done.  e. Don't get your plans changed.


鉴于大家比较感兴趣,我补个排版较好的PDF(点击download下载)

github.com/HK-SHAO/HK-S

更新中,未完结,可前往我的博客查看最新版本

hk-shao.github.io/

内容整理自 

@YJango

 开源的英语学习资料


github.com/YJango/ENGLI


转载于:https://zhuanlan.zhihu.com/p/75728263

相关标签: # English

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